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茶神陆羽

【字体: 】【2013-4-14】 【作者/来源 威廉希尔网】 【阅读: 次】 【关 闭
陆羽字鸿渐,一名疾,字季疵是复州竟陵人(在今日的湖北天门县)生於唐玄宗至唐德宗年间(公元733~804年),得年七十来岁,在古时候是很长寿,但是他的一生却很坎坷,刚出生时,便被父母遗弃河边,被龙盖寺的智积禅师收养,在寺中,他不但学得了识字,也学会了烹茶事物.陆羽虽然容貌不佳,说话有点口吃,但是聪颖好学,幽默机智,若东方曼倩之俦.因为是孤儿,无姓无名,有一次,他拿《易经》卜卦,得到一卦辞:鸿渐于陆,其羽可为用仪.意思是说:水鸟到了高平地,它的羽毛可以编成文舞的道具.陆羽看这是一吉卦且和自己的身世相合,很高兴,便以陆为姓,羽为名,以鸿渐为字.

  陆羽在寺中受了不少苦,後来不堪忍受,便逃离而去.曾经当过戏子,多扮丑角,显示了他幽默机智的才能.十三岁的时候,得到竟陵太守李齐物的赏识,不但赠他诗书,还推荐他到火门山的邹夫子那里学习.十九岁时学成下山,常与好友—诗人崔国辅一起出游,品茶鉴水,谈诗论文.陆羽有很高的文学造诣和颜真卿,张志和等一批名士相交甚笃.生性淡薄名利,朝廷听说陆羽很有学问,就拜他为太子文学,不久又叫他做太常寺太祝但是陆羽不爱做官,根本不去.他曾作诗云:「不羡白玉盏,不羡黄金垒,亦不羡朝入省,亦不羡暮入台,千羡万羡西江水,曾向竟陵城下来」.是陆羽悼念师父智积禅师的诗,也可以看作是他的自况.陆羽对当官毫无兴趣,唯独嗜茶如命,二十一岁时,他为了研究茶的品种和特性,离开竟陵,游历天下,遍嚐各地的名水和名茶,常亲身攀葛附籐,深入产地,采茶制茶,一心扑在研究茶上.上元初,更隐居在苕溪(今浙江吴兴),专心著作.他积多年经验,终於写出了中国第一部,也是世界第一部研究茶的专著《茶经》.全书三卷十篇:(一)茶之源—记茶的生产和特性;(二)茶之具—记采茶的工具;(三)茶之造—记采茶的季节,时刻,晴雨等;(四)茶之器—记茶的加工及其用具;(五)茶之煮—记煮茶的方法;(六)茶之饮—记饮茶的方法;(七)茶之事—记历史方面嗜茶的人事;(八)茶之出—记茶的出产地区;(九)茶之略—略述从造具始到饮茶止;(十)茶之图.记述详备,将茶的性状,品质,产地,种植,采制,加工,烹饮方法及用具等,皆尽论及.此书成了开茶书先河,以後的百馀种茶书皆源於此.陆羽的《茶经》,是唐代和唐代以前有关茶叶科学知识和实践经验的系统总结.《茶经》一问世,即为历代人所宝爱,盛赞他为茶叶的开创之功.宋代陈师道为《茶经》作序说:「夫茶之著书,自羽始.其用于世,亦自羽始.羽诚有功于茶者也!」

  陆羽亦曾隐居在今日的江西上饶市广教寺多年,在他的隐居处筑有山舍—陆鸿渐宅.宅外有茶园数亩,并凿有一泉,水清味甘,被论为「天下第十四泉」—陆羽泉,泉边石圈上「源清流洁」四个篆字是清末知府段大诚所题,至今仍保持完好.陆羽在此以自凿泉井,烹自种之茶而自得其乐.唐代诗人孟郊在《题陆鸿渐上饶新开山舍》一诗中,盛赞陆羽的清雅高洁.

  俗话说,开门七件事—柴,米,油,盐,酱,醋,茶,茶和人们的生活密不可分,陆羽对茶的研究为人们的饮食生活做了很大的贡献,所以死後不久,便被人们奉为茶圣,茶神.在湖北天门县城北门外,有一处著名的井泉人称「文学泉」,泉後有一碑亭,内立石碑,正面题「文学泉」背後题「品茶真迹」.碑亭後面有座小庙,是「茶圣」陆羽庙,石壁嵌线刻有陆羽小像,正在端坐品茗,极有风致.在当时,陆羽像大多为陶瓷制品,为茶商和茶肆老板所供奉.

  《因话录》载:陆羽性嗜茶,始创煎茶法,至今鬻之家,陶其像置於炀器之间,云宜茶足利.

  《唐国史补》载:巩县陶者多为瓷偶人,号陆鸿渐,买数十茶器得一鸿渐,市人沽敬不利,辄灌注之.

  《唐书》载:时鬻茶者,至陶羽形,置炀突间,祀为茶神.

  《大唐传载》载:陆鸿渐嗜茶撰《茶经》三卷行於代,常见鬻茶邸,烧瓦瓷为其形貌,置於灶釜上左右为茶神,有交易则茶祭之,无则以釜汤沃之. 
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