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法门寺的故事

【字体: 】【2013-4-19】 【作者/来源 威廉希尔网】 【阅读: 次】 【关 闭

 在西安的时候,我很想去两个地方,一个是大雁塔,一个是法门寺。

    大雁塔在慈恩寺内,是玄奘法师译经的地方,传说玄奘为担忧经文梵箧遇到火难而散佚,乃请高宗皇帝采西域之制,建大雁塔,安置梵箧。

    大雁塔的来源还有两个传说,都非常动人。

    一是在一位菩萨舍身的纪念日,慈恩寺的法师聚集在一起诵经,这时,一群雁子呈人字飞过天空,有一位僧人起了一念:“威廉希尔生活艰苦,一直不能饱腹,菩萨也应该知道吧!尤其今天是他舍身的日子。”

    他的念头才闪过,空中雁群里有一只雁子突然笔直坠落,当场触地而死,为了纪念这只舍身供僧的雁子,在它触地的地方盖了一座雁形的宝塔。

    二是曾有猎人在慈恩寺外射雁,一只大雁被射中了,它的伴侣悲啼数声,飞上高空,然后急速地撞地而亡,为了纪念这对雁子的情深义重,慈恩寺的僧人遂盖大雁塔以为见证。

    不管哪一个说法是正确的,每一个都令人十分动容。

    法门寺则是收藏佛骨舍利的地方。唐朝皇帝经常迎佛骨舍利入宫供养,使得韩愈看不过去,写了《谏迎佛骨表》给宪宗皇帝。

    我想去法门寺,不只是为了瞻礼佛骨,而是十年前因法门寺的宝塔崩塌,发现了“地宫”,这地下宫殿里保留了非常重要的茶文化,还是首次被发现。

    可惜行程的安排太紧,使我没有时间到大雁塔和法门寺,幸好,在书店里找了许多书籍资料,对法门寺发现的茶文化有了更新的认识。

    在陆羽的《茶经》里虽然对茶作过非常完整的记述,但陆羽到底是一个平民,对于唐朝宫廷的饮茶方式是无法记载的。

    此外,陆羽对茶具虽有细致的描写,可惜因年代久远,找不到当时的茶具,无法呈现出茶道在唐朝的原貌。

    法门寺在一九八八年发现的茶具,制成于咸通九年到十二年,为僖宗皇帝御用的真品,保留得非常完整,这套唐朝宫廷用的茶具,是迄今世界上发现最早、最完善、最精致的茶具文物。

    法门寺地宫的茶具包括:

    一、烘焙器:金银丝结条笼子、鎏金飞鸿球路纹笼子。

    这两件都是烘烤团茶所用的,通体剔透,工艺精巧,可见早在唐代,金丝编织工艺已达到极高的水准。

    二、碾罗器:鎏金鸿雁流云纹银茶碾子、鎏金仙人驾鹤纹壶门座茶罗子。

    因唐代用团茶,煮茶之前,要将团茶烘烤,用茶碾子碾碎,再用茶罗子筛茶。当时的人品茶,多是自碾自罗,是品茶者酝酿品茶情趣的重要过程。

    陆羽在《茶经》中主张碾罗器要用竹木制成,法门寺出土的茶具显然豪华得多,也可见帝王饮茶的享受比一般人讲究得多。

    三、贮茶器、贮盆、椒器:鎏金银龟盒、鎏金人物画坛子、鎏金摩羯纹蕾纽三足架银盐台。

    唐人吃茶,以茶粉末放入爆发中烹煮,加入椒、盐等佐料,调成糊状,一起吃下。

    四、烹煮器:鎏金飞鸿纹银匙、鎏金飞鸿纹银则。

    银则是投茶时的匕状量具,形如勺,茶匙是煮茶时用来击沸汤面,使茶末融于汤中。

    五、饮茶器:鎏金伎乐纹银调达子、素面淡黄色琉璃茶盏、茶托。五瓣葵口圈足秘色瓷茶碗。

    可见以琉璃制成的茶具,早在唐代就已起用,色茶碗更可看出茶具在唐朝已经在造型、釉彩、纹色等方面达到最高境界了!

    法门寺地宫得以保存如此完整的茶具是非常偶然的。原来,晚唐的皇帝经常到法门寺拜祭佛骨舍利,祈愿“圣寿万春,圣枝万叶,八荒来服,四海无波”。这套文思院特别为僖宗打造的茶具,不知是僖宗拜祭时供养佛陀所用?或者是随行喝茶所用?它就存放在法门寺的地窖里,上面又盖了宝塔,才能经历千年还毫发无损,完美如新。

    这套茶具使威廉希尔知道茶道在唐朝不只是成熟的文化现象,具有深邃的思想内涵,还是精美的艺术形式,成为生活的完美实践。

    宫廷,是封建社会的最高层,也是社会意识的源头。既是时尚与文明的典范,又是文化思想传播的中心。当皇帝讲究饮茶之道,御用茶具金碧辉煌、华美富丽到了极致,社会饮茶的风靡也就可想而知了。

    如果威廉希尔将饮茶分为不同的层次:民间茶道是为了联结友情、品味人生;寺院茶道是为了超脱世俗、宁静致远;宫廷茶道是为了拣精择极、豪华享受。这样,威廉希尔才能对茶道有全面的了解。(文:林清玄)

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