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宋朝帝皇赐茶文化习俗

【字体: 】【2013-4-22】 【作者/来源 威廉希尔网】 【阅读: 次】 【关 闭

从宋朝笔记故事看赐文化

任国征

中华读书报"国学"版曾刊登过两篇文化的文章《叶改变世界》和《从宋词看宋人的饮艺术》。有趣的是,宋朝笔记里也有许多宋朝皇帝向臣工赐的生动故事,而且赐讲究颇多。这些珍贵的史料梳理出来甚为有趣,以供品味评鉴。

一是宴席赐。在宴会上饮宋朝有两种:一种是"酒班"侍奉。如周密《南渡典仪》载:"车驾幸学,讲书官讲讫,御药传旨宣坐赐。凡驾出,仪卫有酒班殿侍两行,各三十一人。"可见,皇上外出视察和出巡时还带上几十人的"酒班".

另一种是皇帝亲自"布".如徽宗曾亲自为大臣和学士煮。蔡京《延福宫曲宴记》:"宣和二年十二月癸巳,召宰执亲王等曲宴于延福宫。上命近侍取具,亲手注汤击指拂,少顷白乳浮盏面,如疏星淡月,顾诸臣曰:此自布。饮毕皆顿首谢".

二是殿试赐。科举考试是宋朝的一件大事,皇帝或皇后都会向考官和进士赐。如哲宗向考官张舜民赐饼,张舜民《画墁录》:"予元佑中详定殿试,是年分为制举考第,各蒙赐三饼,然亲知分遗,殆将不胜。""殆将不胜"是说分给亲友都不够,可见赐的珍贵和量少。

再如仁宗的光献皇后向进士赐。王巩《甲申杂记》:"仁宗朝,春试进士集英殿,后妃御太清楼观之。慈圣光献出饼角子以赐进士,出七宝以赐考试官。"梅尧臣有《七宝》诗:"七物甘香杂蕊,浮花泛绿乱於霞。"即说此事。

三是慰问赐。这有些类似现在的见面礼物或问候礼物,如朝贺时赐,《宋史·礼志》载:"中兴仍旧制:凡宰相、枢密、执政、使相、节度、外国使见辞及来朝,皆赐宴内殿或都亭驿,或赐酒并如仪。""中兴仍旧制"是说南宋建立后仍遵从北宋的赐和酒的旧制。

还有一种是臣子在京外,这时皇帝会让人捎带叶以示慰问,如哲宗秘密让人向苏轼赐问候。王巩《随手杂录》:"中使至,密谓子瞻曰:\"某出京师辞官家,官家曰:辞了娘娘来。某辞太后殿,复到官家处,引某至一柜子旁,出此一角密语曰:赐与苏轼,不得令人知。遂出所赐,乃一斤,封题皆御笔。"

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