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历代茶人取水多讲究宜茶之水先得“远市井”

【字体: 】【2013-5-23】 【作者/来源 威廉希尔网】 【阅读: 次】 【关 闭

国家高级评茶员、安徽农业大学茶学系毕业的张晓芳说,常常有朋友问:“同样的茶叶,在您这沏的茶很香,咋回去就变味了?”面对这样的疑问,张晓芳都要细细介绍一番:茶有灵性,泡茶要用心。沏出好茶,除了泡茶的技艺外,心情的好坏、环境的优劣、器皿的选择都会影响茶的品味。而在所有的外在因素中,影响茶口感最主要的原因,还是水的选择。

 

自古水为茶之母好茶须有好水配

 

和张晓芳的说法一致,自古以来好茶之人都流传一句品茶论水金句,“无水不可与之论茶也”,水与茶的关系总是相得益彰。水之于茶,犹如水之于酒一样重要,再好的茶,无好水则难得真味。故自古以来,著名茶人无不精于水的鉴别,因水的好坏对茶的色、香、味影响实在太大。

 

明人田艺衡在《煮茶小品》中曾说,茶的品质有好有坏,“若不得其水,且煮之不得其宜,虽好也不好”。明人许次纾在《茶疏》中也说:“精茗蕴香,借水而发,无水不可与论茶也”。清人张大复甚至把水品放在茶品之上,他认为:“茶性必发于水,八分之茶,遇十分之水,茶亦十分矣;八分之水,试十分之茶,茶只八分耳。”

 

这些经典的品茶论水之句,换作现代评茶专家的话来说,就是“当优质的香茶遇到了口感生硬含有杂质的水,茶很难用其淡雅和回味去掩盖水的青涩。这样的组合除了解渴之外,就再无什么建树。只有甘甜的好水和优质的香茶相遇,茶水的味道才会登峰造极。”无论是古是今,茶圣茶仙们都认同“好茶须有好水配”,更精辟地总结了茶与水的关系,那就是“水为茶之母”。

 

好水来自好水源史传二十处名水

 

既知好茶须有好水配,那究竟哪里出的水才能称得上是“好水”呢?关于宜茶之水来源何处,早在陆羽所著的《茶经》中,便曾详加论证。他说:“其水,用山水上,江水中,井水下。其山水,拣乳泉石池漫流者上,其瀑涌湍濑勿食之,久食令人有颈疾。又多别流于山谷者,澄 浸不泄,自火天至霜郊(降)以前,或潜龙蓄毒于其间。饮者可 决之,以流其恶,使新泉涓涓然,酌之。其江水,取去人远者,井水取汲多者。”翻译成大白话,陆羽在这里对水的要求,其实首先是要远市井,少污染;重活水,恶死水。故认为山中乳泉、江中清流为佳。而沟谷之中,水流不畅,又在严夏时,有各种毒虫或细菌繁殖,当然不好喝。

 

至于究竟哪里的水好、哪儿的水劣,史传陆羽还曾品天下名水,列出前二十名次序:江州庐山康王谷谷帘水第一;常州无锡县惠山石泉第二;蕲州兰溪石下水第三;硖州扇子硖蛤蟆口水第四;苏州虎丘寺石泉第五;江州庐山招贤寺下石桥潭水第六;扬州扬子江中冷水第七;洪州西山瀑布水第八;唐州桐柏县淮水源第九;江州庐山顶龙池水第十;润州丹阳县观音寺井水第十二;汉江金州上流中冷水第十三;归州玉虚洞春溪水第十四;商州武关西洛水笫十五;苏州吴淞江水第十六;如州天台西南峰瀑布水第十七;郴州圆泉第十八;严州桐庐江严陵滩水第十九;雪水第二十。

 

 

何处好水可采撷原生态区水最好

 

然而随着历史和地质变迁,化学环境的污染也在加剧,曾经的宜茶之水,其水质也许早已经发生变化;位于大城市中心的泉水,有些已经慢慢枯竭,远不能满足人们的生活用水,取而代之的是自来水、包装水(包括桶装水、瓶装水和袋装水等)。

 

今天,好水多出自植被茂密、污染少的岩石山峦中,透过岩层、植被等渗透出来。城市喧嚣之中的爱茶之人,想取到好水,却由于交通运输不便、不能长久存放等种种原因无法成行。品茶者若还想效仿古人细品天然好水泡出的一杯香茗,就不得不对照着包装水的水源来撷取了。那么,在现代水质及饮水专家们认为怎样才算得上好水源呢?北京健康饮用水专家赵飞虹对此表示,“水源地的水质非常关键。越是好水,处理的工艺越简单,使用的消毒剂以及其他东西就越少。所以自然保护区、人迹罕到的地区、高海拔的地区的水应该作为威廉希尔的首选。一些海拔高、人烟稀少、远离工农业的地方的水,能很好地保留它的原生态,干净的程度也会非常高。”专家称,这些水现在虽无法像古代那样可取来泡茶饮用,但因有好的水源地原料来生产成包装水,品质上仍可算品茶好水。

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