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早春茶叶管理方法

【字体: 】【2013-1-29】 【作者/来源 威廉希尔网】 【阅读: 次】 【关 闭
   早春茶叶的管理方法如下:
   一、除草松土
   茶园经过4-5个月的雨雪,土壤已经板结,有的已长出青草,而此时土温较低,因此,在春茶开采前进行茶园除草松土,有利于疏松土壤、提高土温,削除杂草,减少水分和养分的消耗,有利于促进春茶的早萌发。除草松土一般以2月底、3月初进行,深度以10-15厘米为宜。
   二、施催芽肥
   施催芽肥时间宜早不宜迟,在离茶树根部15-20厘米处开沟施入,亩施尿素30-35公斤或复合肥30公斤或腐蚀熟栏肥2000-2500公斤,施后覆土。对于不能开通施肥的茶园,可在雨天撒施尿素,并用竹竿抖动茶蓬,让肥料掉落入土。
   三、修剪
   修剪最好是在2月底至惊蛰前完成,最迟不能超过3月10日。因此时茶树经过一冬的休眠,茎、根贮藏的养分多,修剪后易恢复,又加上早春气温回升,修剪后长出的枝条不易受冻,劳力又不紧张,容易掌握。生产茶园一般提倡轻修剪,即一般剪去去年的秋稍(青梗),留养春、夏稍(红梗),约剪去2-3厘米。如果树冠受冻的,要根据受冻程度进行修剪。
   四、防冻
   早春气候异常,气温乍暖乍寒,这种气候条件对茶园生产高档名优茶极为不利。在早春季节应随时注意当地气象预报,提前作好预防倒春寒的措施。在寒潮预报发布后,对于已萌芽叶的早生品种茶园,要集中人力抢采幼嫩芽,以减少冻害损失。在易受冻害的迎风坡茶园用稻草、杂草或遮阳网覆盖茶行蓬面,待寒潮过后及时将覆盖物掀去。茶树遭受冻害后,必须根据受冻情况采取相应的护理和复壮措施,使茶树尽快恢复树势。
   五、清沟排水
   春季雨水多,若茶园排水不畅,茶树易受渍害烂根,造成茶芽迟发、减产。因此要及时开沟排水,清理疏通排水沟,保证地下水位在1米以下,做到雨停茶园干、不积水。
   六、补叶面肥
   3月上旬,当气温超过12℃以后,可利用茶树叶片吸收功能,根外补施肥料,促使茶树提早萌芽,增加产量,改善品质。根外施肥可用0.5%尿素,0.3%磷酸二氢钾、多功能营养液“中茶草”和激素“920”等。
   七、防治虫害
   春茶采摘期,正值蚜虫、茶毛虫和黑粉刺虱第虫害发生初期,应抓紧在春分后清明前用20%杀灭聚酯2000-3000倍液进行喷杀防治。
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