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有机茶生产与有机产品认证

【字体: 】【2014-7-5】 【作者/来源 威廉希尔网】 【阅读: 次】 【关 闭
    所谓有机茶,是指在原料生产过程中遵循自然规律和生态学原理,采取有益于生态和环境的可持续发展的农业技术,不使用合成的农药、肥料及生长调节剂等物质,在加工过程中不使用合成的食品添加剂,并经专业认证机构认证的茶叶及相关产品。

   有机茶相对于普通茶叶在环境、生产、加工和销售环节都有更加严格的要求,具有下列特点:

   一是产地环境要求高。有机茶的产地要求选择在生态条件良好,远离污染源,并具有可持续生产能力的农业生产区域。具体来说,要求茶叶基地所处的环境空气清洁、干净(符合GB 3095的二级标准),土壤中铅、汞、镉、砷和铬等重金属元素和六六六、DDT等农残的含量应在规定的范围内(符合GB 15618的二级标准),茶园灌溉用水要求有干净的水源(符合GB 5084的标准);茶园与交通干线、工厂和城镇之间应保持一定的距离,附近及上风口或河流的上游没有污染源。

  二是生产过程中不允许使用任何人工合成的农药、化肥、植物生长调节剂和除草剂等物质。强调采用农业内部循环的方式培肥土壤;采用生态调控、农业技术措施和物理等方式控制病虫害的危害;生产过程中强调采用有益生态环境技术,降低资源消耗,解决生物多样性减少、土壤肥力下降、农业环境污染等问题。

  三是注重对生产、加工和销售等环节的全过程控制。有机茶生产坚持“从茶园到茶杯”的全程质量控制,无论是田间生产,还是加工过程乃至销售到消费者手中,均要按标准和规范操作,每个步骤要有详细的记录,记录内容包括茶园投入物、原料的收获、加工产品的质量和数量、产品的流转和废弃物的处理等,产品具有可追溯性。

  四是实行认证和标志管理。有机茶必须通过国家认监委批准的专门的认证机构,按照GB/T19630《有机产品》标准和相关规则进行认证,并在产品最小销售包装上加施中国有机产品认证标志及其唯一编号、认证机构名称或标识,才能在市场上进行销售。

  目前国内通过有机认证的有机茶产品包括:有机绿茶、红茶、乌龙茶、白茶、黄茶、黑茶、花茶,以及银杏茶、苦丁茶、桑茶、柿叶茶等代用茶。

  一般来讲,消费者通过简单的外观、口味等无法区分出有机茶叶和普通茶叶。为防止有机茶中混杂非有机茶或者以普通茶假冒有机茶,自2012年3月1日起实施的《有机产品认证实施规则》和《有机产品》(GB/T19630-2011)建立了有机码制度,采取“一品一码”的方式,对有机产品认证标志使用进行规范。认证机构在向获证企业发放认证标志或者允许生产企业在产品标签上印制有机产品认证标志(仅限流水线产品)前,必须按照国家认监委统一的编号规则,赋予每枚认证标志一个唯一编码,认证机构为获证产品发放“有机码”,且上传到“有机产品国家标志备案系统”,每个销售的有机产品或其包装上都带有一个唯一的“有机码”,做到“一品一码”。同时,为了进一步规范有机产品市场秩序,打击非法利用有机转换认证冒充有机认证的行为,2014年4月1日起施行的《有机产品认证管理办法》(国家质检总局第155号令,简称新《办法》)取消了有机转换认证及其标志,从根本上杜绝了利用有机转换认证冒充有机认证的行为,也有利于消费者统一识别和正确理解有机产品概念。

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